We monitored bear rubs ininand in Once we had complete multi-locus genotypes, we analyzed 1—5 samples from each individual for gender using amelogenin . We used model averaged estimates of derived parameters to account for model selection uncertainty .
For whitebark pine restoration techniques, see the FEIS review of whitebark pine.
Silviculture: American black bears are habitat generalists that require a mosaic of habitat types and may have diverse responses to forest management [ ].
Vertebrate carrion or prey items include woodland caribou Rangifer tarandus caribou [ 4142,], elk Cervis canadensis [ 37, ], white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus [ 12 ], mule deer O.
Annual home range size was The muzzle is a yellowish-brown with a white patch sometimes present on the lower throat and chest. For most bear projects in western North America, samples that were extracted are first analyzed at the G10J locus, which has a high amplification success rate and is diagnostic between grizzly and black bears in the region .