Battle of tours
The battle was still in flux when — Frankish histories claim — a rumour went through the Umayyad army that Frankish scouts threatened the booty that they had taken from Bordeaux.
He would have to face the Muslims sooner or later, and his men were enraged by the utter devastation of the Aquitanians and wanted to fight. The treaties reached earlier with the local population stood firm and were further consolidated in when the governor of Narbonne, Yusuf ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri, concluded agreements with several towns on common defense arrangements against the encroachments of Charles Martel, who had systematically brought the south to heel as he extended his domains.
Probably he and his own men did not realize the seriousness of the battle they had fought, as Matthew Bennett and his co-authors, in Fighting Techniques of the Medieval World says: "few battles are remembered 1, years after they are fought [ Both histories agree that while attempting to stop the retreat, Abd er Rahman became surrounded, which led to his death, and the Muslims returned to their camp.
Battle of tours essay
Essentially these historians argue that the Arabs were not interested enough to mount a major invasion, because Northern Europe at that time was considered to be a socially, culturally and economically backward area with little to interest any invaders. And while he was well aware of the Caliphate's strengths and weaknesses, they knew almost nothing about the Franks. Autun is just to the right of the map's midpoint, Septimania runs along the rightward coast from the Spanish border, and Aquitaine is along the coast running north from Spain. Hunold, who originally resisted acknowledging Charles as overlord, had no choice when the Muslims returned. Martin, "The Battle of Tours is still felt today", also argue that Tours was such a turning point in favor of western civilization and Christianity that its aftereffect remains to this day. It has been suggested by numerous historians, including Edward Gibbon that had the Franks been defeated at Tours, the Muslim advance into Europe, then divided into squabbling kingdoms, would have been unstoppable. In the modern era, Norwich, the most widely read authority on the Eastern Roman Empire, says the Franks halting Muslim Expansion at Tours literally preserved Christianity as we know it. With Christ's help he overturned their tents, and hastened to battle to grind them small in slaughter. Supporting the significance of Tours as a world-altering event[ edit ] Ninth-century chroniclers recorded the outcome of the battle as divine judgment in his favour and gave Charles the nickname Martellus "The Hammer". Some 60 years would pass before Charlemagne, having suffered a crushing defeat against the Basques at Roncesvalles in , would return to capture Barcelona and establish the Spanish March as a militarized buffer zone between the Pyrenees and the Ebro River. Military writers such as Robert W. Charles at first believed that the Umayyad forces were trying to lure him down the hill and into the open. Martin considers Tours "one of the most decisive battles in all of history. Dorset Press,
Initially meeting little resistance, they were able to gain a foothold and the forces of Al-Samh ibn Malik established their capital at Narbonne in It says of the encounter that, While Abd ar-Rahman was pursuing Eudes, he decided to despoil Tours by destroying its palaces and burning its churches.
These infantry were all the hope for victory he had.
At Bordeaux, they did, and resulted in absolute devastation of Eudes army, almost all of whom were killed, with minimal losses to the Muslims. Seasoned and battle hardened, most of them had fought with him for years, some as far back as Eudes's forces, like other European troops of that era, lacked stirrups, and therefore had no armoured cavalry.
Battle of tours worksheet
The Franks in their wolf and bear pelts were well dressed for the cold, and had the terrain advantage. The number of troops in each army is not known. Marching with approximately 30, Frankish troops he assumed a position between the towns of Tours and Poitiers. During the battle he receives a fatal wound, and the Saracen army retires into the nearby town of Narbonne before retreating back to the safety of Spain. Advance toward the Loire In , the Arab advance force was proceeding north toward the River Loire having outpaced their supply train and a large part of their army. The king Abdirama having been killed, he destroyed [them], driving forth the army, he fought and won. Martin considers Tours "one of the most decisive battles in all of history. The Islamic Umayyad Empire at its greatest extent. A military explanation for why Eudes was defeated so easily at Bordeaux and at the Battle of the River Garonne after having won 11 years earlier at the Battle of Toulouse is simple. Charles supposedly had sent scouts to cause chaos in the Muslim base camp, and free as many of the slaves as possible, hoping to draw off part of his foe. Threatened by both the Arabs in the south and by the Franks in the north, in Eudes allied himself with the Berber emir Uthman ibn Naissa, called "Munuza" by the Franks, the deputy governor of what would later become Catalonia. At Bordeaux, and again at the Battle of the River Garonne, the Arab cavalry were not taken by surprise, and given a chance to mass for battle, this led to the devastation of Eudes's army, almost all of whom were killed with minimal losses to the Muslims. It has been suggested by numerous historians, including Edward Gibbon that had the Franks been defeated at Tours, the Muslim advance into Europe, then divided into squabbling kingdoms, would have been unstoppable. The Arabs were not as prepared for the intense cold of an oncoming northern European winter, despite having tents, which the Franks did not, but did not want to attack a Frankish army they believed may have been numerically superior—according to most historians it was not. Contemporary accounts The Mozarabic Chronicle of "describes the battle in greater detail than any other Latin or Arabic source".
Martel had the element of surprise, and had been allowed to pick the ground. Watson, Providence: Studies in Western Civilization.
Second battle of tours
The Mozarabic Chronicle of says: "And in the shock of the battle the men of the North seemed like a sea that cannot be moved. The invading force went on to devastate southern Gaul. Both Davis and Hanson point out that both armies had to live off the countryside, neither having a commissary system sufficient to provide supplies for a campaign. NY: Touchstone, Some historians believe Narbonne in particular was as imporant a victory for Christian Europe as Tours. While some military historians point out that leaving enemies in your rear is not generally wise, the Mongols proved that indirect attack, and bypassing weaker foes to eliminate the strongest first, is a devastatingly effective mode of invasion. Had the Franks fallen, no other power existed stopping Muslim conquest of Italy and the effective end of what would become the modern Catholic Church. Charles, leading an army of such size rarely seen in Europe, crosses the Loire River and joins the remains of the army of Aquitaine.
Following day The next day, when the Muslims did not renew the battle, the Franks feared an ambush.
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